Thursday, April 30, 2015

Russian Reverse Engineering

Russian Reverse Engineering ---

General Electric J-79 Jet Engine (F-104 and F-4 fighters backbone of NATO)


From: http://forum.keypublishing.com/showthread.php?31570-soviet-russian-engines

Well, there are some interesting stories in Russian engine development, to be sure.

For example, everyone knows that they got the Nene and Derwent from Britain, which were reverse-engineered and put into production. Less well known engine technology transfers occurred. The two F-86s (1 A, 1 E) recovered from Korea were actually going to be reverse engineered, but this project was canned- but

the reverse-engineered AN/APG-30 ranging radar formed the basis of the SRD-3 "Grad" which equipped the MiG-19. Ironically by the time these jets met American Phantom over Vietnam, the F-4 lacked a gun, and when they did strap on a gun, it lacked a gunsight radar ranging mode, unlike the F-105 which actually had a daylight dogfight capability, though  without quick turn capability.

I suspect, though I haven't seen it formally acknowleged, that the J47 of the F-86 was at least studied, though it wasn't actually copied.

More seriously, the AL-21F was heavily based on a J79 turbojet recovered from Vietnam. It is a measure of the technology gap that an American engine almost 10 years old was worth reverse engineering. The original AL-21F wasn't very successful, but was developed into the AL-21F-3 which as classified secret and rarely exported- perhaps to hide the ancestry of the Russian's most advanced turbojet of the time.


Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines
https://books.google.com/books?isbn=1420008773
Ahmed F. El-Sayed - 2008 - ‎Technology & EngineeringThe engine was adopted for the Tupolev Tu-128P in 1960. The Lyulka AL-21 is closely similar to the GE J-79. It entered the service in early 1960s as it powered ...
Variable stator led to GE J-79 first true engien for supersonic flight. powered F-4 Phantom .. The Lyulka AL-21 is closely similar to the GE J-79. . It entered the service in early 1960s as it powered ... TU-28P

http://forum.keypublishing.com/showthread.php?31570-soviet-russian-engines
 More seriously, the AL-21F was heavily based on a J79 turbojet recovered from Vietnam.
It is a measure of the technology gap that an American engine almost 10 years old (first flown in 1955) was worth reverse engineering. The original AL-21F wasn't very successful, but was developed into the AL-21F-3 which as classified secret and rarely exported- perhaps to hide the ancestry of the Russian's most advanced turbojet of the time.

http://forum.keypublishing.com/showthread.php?113202-J79-versus-AL-21
I was under the impression the AL-21 was based on the J79 engine, specifically it copied the variable stator design. Looking at the specs, the AL-21 seems to be a physical copy as well.
According to Wikipedia their dimensions and weight were practically identical. However AL-21 delivers far more thrust. 6.6:1 compared to the J79's 4.6:1. The performance puts it in almost a different generation. What advancements does the Soviet engine have to account for this?

J79-GE-17
Length: 17.4 ft (5.3 m)
Diameter: 3.2 ft (1.0 m)
Dry weight: 3,850 lb (1,750 kg)
11,905 lbf (52.9 kN) dry vs 76.4 kN (17,175 lbf) dry
17,835 lbf (79.3 kN) with afterburner vs 109.8 kN (24,675 lbf) with afterburner
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.6:1 (45.4 N/kg) vs Thrust-to-weight ratio: 64.7 N/kg (6.6:1)

_____________

AL-21F3
Length: 5,300 mm (209 in)
Diameter: 1,000 mm (39 in)
Dry weight: 1,700 kg (3,740 lb)
76.4 kN (17,175 lbf) dry
109.8 kN (24,675 lbf) with afterburner
Thrust-to-weight ratio: 64.7 N/kg (6.6:1)

J-79-8 configuration: 17 stage compressor, 3 stage turbine
AL-21F-3A configuration: 14 stage compressor, 3 stage turbine

J-79-8 length: 5.3m
AL-21F-3A length: 5.16m

J-79-8 compression ratio: 13:1
AL-21F-3A compression ratio: 14.55:1

J-79-8 Mass flow: 76.7kg/sec
AL-21F-3A Mass flow: 104kg/sec

J-79 turbine entry temperature: 954°C
AL-21F-3A turbine entry temperature: 1093°C

No great magic - it sucks in more air, compresses it more, and burns it hotter. AL-21F is a later design and superior in all respects. It used some technology from recovered J-79s, but it is certainly NOT the same design. Its compressor is much more advanced getting more compression from less stages.

http://rbth.com/defence/2015/04/20/the_su-24_attack_interceptor_jack_of_two_trades_master_of_both_45379.html
the aircraft received two AL-21F engines instead. These, some experts claim, were designed using a J79 engine taken from a U.S. fighter shot down in Vietnam.


Boeing B-29  Tail Turret



The B-29 tail gun unit used in many Russian bombers up to Tu-95 bear and Il-76 jet transport




B-29


Tu-95 Bear Tail Gun - RAF F4 Phantom QRA
Most Tu-95 models have very accurate, very effective
twin 23mm tail guns. And we approach from behind!


Tu-95 Bear Rear Crew
Tu-95 Bear taken during a QRA sortie. This picture shows the tail gunner and the
camera operator, who is photographing us. Tail guns are normally pointed upwards
like this during intercepts to show no hostile intent on their part.

Tupolev Tu-4 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaWikipediaThe U.S. twice refused to supply the Soviet Union with B-29s under Lend Lease. .....militera.lib.ru: a compilation of articles published in 1988–1990 (in Russian).

How Russians copied captured B-29 - Telegraph  The Daily TelegraphJan 27, 2001 - FRESH details showing how Stalin's engineers stripped a B-29Superfortress bomber "rivet-by-rivet" and copied it to produce their own aircraft ...

Russians Show How B-29 Was Copied in 1940s - latimes Jan 26, 2001 - The Russian historians brought an original sketchbook of fine pencil drawings of circles, lines and measurements of the B-29 Superfortress.

Suicide by Cop

Suicide by Cop ---
Terroristic Security Incidents by Category |Timeline

Slate: The term suicide by cop was coined in 1983 by a police officer­–turned–suicide hotline operator. “As a cop, I knew of a number of cases where it appeared that people had actually forced police officers to shoot them,” Dr. Karl Harris explained to the New York Times in 1998. “In the suicide business I saw all the different ways people attempted suicide, and it occurred to me that maybe some people were actually forcing cops to shoot them because they wanted to die.”

*Reference


Suicide by cop - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia WikipediaSuicide by cop is a suicide method in which a suicidal individual deliberately behaves in a threatening manner, with the goal being to provoke a lethal response ...

*Wikipedia (4/30/2015)

Suicide by cop is a suicide method in which a suicidal individual deliberately behaves in a threatening manner, with the goal being to provoke a lethal response from a law enforcement officer or other legitimately-armed individual.[1]

Overview[edit]

There are two broad categories of "suicide by cop". The first is when someone has committed a crime and is being pursued by the police and decides that they would rather die than be arrested. These people may not otherwise be suicidal but may simply decide that life is not worth living if they are incarcerated and thus will provoke police to kill them. The second version involves people who are already contemplating suicide and who, for whatever reason, decide that provoking law enforcement into killing them is the best way to act on their desires. These individuals may commit a crime with the specific intention of provoking a law enforcement response.
The idea of committing suicide in this manner is based on trained procedures of law enforcement officers, specifically the policy on the use of deadly force. In jurisdictions where officials are readily capable of deadly force (often by being equipped with firearms), there are usually set circumstances where they will predictably use deadly force against a threat to themselves or others. This form of suicide functions by exploiting this trained reaction. The most common scenario is pointing a firearm at a police officer or an innocent person, which would reasonably provoke an officer to fire on them in defense. However, many variants exist; for example, attacking with a knife or other hand weapon, trying to run an officer or other person over with a car, or trying to trigger a (real or presumed) explosive device.
This entire concept hinges on the person's state of mind, and their desire to end their own life, which can be difficult to determine post mortem.[2] Some cases are obvious, such as pointing an unloaded or non-functioning gun (such as a toy gun, air gunairsoft gun or starter's pistol) at officers, or the presence of a suicide note. Some suspects brazenly announce their intention to die before they act (e.g., the iconic declaration "You'll never take me alive!"). However, many cases can be more difficult to determine, as some suspects with the desire to die will actually fire live ammunition and even kill people before being killed themselves. Many law enforcement training programs have added sections to specifically address handling these situations if officers suspect that the subject is attempting to goad them into using lethal force.

History[edit]

Many modern cases that pre-date the formal recognition of the phenomenon have been identified or speculated by historians as matching the pattern now known as suicide by cop. According to authors Mark Lindsay and David Lester, Houston McCoy, one of the two Austin Police Department officers who shot and killedCharles Whitman, the Texas Tower sniper, believed that Whitman could have shot him and fellow officer Ramiro Martinez, but "he was waiting for them, and wanted to be shot."[3] The 1976 death of Mal Evans, road manager, assistant, and a friend of The Beatles, who aimed an air gun at police and refused to put it down, was theorized as a possible example of this phenomenon.[4] Some historians believe that Giuseppe Zangara, the man who killed Chicago mayor Anton Cermak in a possible attempt to assassinate then President-Elect Franklin D. Roosevelt, might have been attempting suicide by police.[5]

Recognition and research[edit]


An airsoft handgun, often indistinguishable from a real one.
The phenomenon has been described in news accounts from 1981,[6] and scientific journals since 1985.[6] The phrase has appeared in news headlines since at least 1987.[7] It did not become common until the early 2000s. The phrase seems to have originated in the United States, but has also appeared in the UK, where a jury first determined someone committed suicide by cop in 2003.[8]
Some of the first research into suicide by cop was completed by Sgt. Rick Parent of the Delta Police Department. Parent's research of 843 police shootings determined that about 50% were victim precipitated homicide. Police defined victim precipitated homicide as "an incident in which an individual bent on self-destruction, engages in life threatening and criminal behavior to force law enforcement officers to kill them."[9]
The first formally labeled "Suicide by Cop" case in English legal history was a judgment made by Reverend Dr. William Dolman while serving as a London coroner between 1993 and 2007.[10] It set a legal precedent and the judgment, as a cause of death, has been a part of English law since.

Examples[edit]

See also[edit]

*Timeline

Suicide by cop’: desperate act of a tormented soul sfgate January 7, 2015  sergeants who killed 32-year-old Matthew Hoffman on Sunday evening reportedly thought they were firing at an armed man in self-defense, they later learned that the weapon he pulled out was an airsoft pistol — and that he had saved a suicide note on his phone that was addressed to them and stated, “You had no other choice.” San Francisco police as well as experts said it appeared to be a clear case of “suicide by cop,” 


Michael Brown: Suicide by Cop | Bob Enyart Live KGOV  Nov 26, 2014 - The guys present Michael Brown's actual cause of death, which wassuicide by cop, and the real source of the rage in much of the black ... Michael Brown spent his last day with his friend Dorian ... - Vox Nov 25, 2014 -  Officer Darren Wilson's newly released account of his altercation with Michael Brown was unbelievable. Which isn't to say it was wrong. It was just hard to believe that events played out exactly as Wilson described. But the story Wilson tells makes much more sense if you also read it alongside Dorian Johnson's testimony — and use the two accounts to balance each other out. Wilson presents Michael Brown as a rage-filled lunatic attempting to commit suicide by cop. Johnson presents a more nuanced picture of provocations on both sides, followed by escalation, followed by a fight in which both men grew enraged — and in which one man had a gun.... "We was so close to the door that it hit mostly Big Mike, but it hit me on my left side and closed back on him, like real fast. Just the same speed, boom, boom, that fast." Compare this moment to Wilson's rendering: I go to open my door, say, "Hey, come here." He said, "What the fuck you gonna do?" And he shut my door on me. The door was only open maybe a foot. I didn't have a chance to get my leg out. I shut the door and he came up and appro ached the door. I opened the door again, trying to push him back, tell him to get back. Um, he said something. I'm not sure exactly what it was and then started swinging and punching at me from outside the vehicle...... The narratives continue to split. Wilson describes a scuffle deep inside the car, with Brown as the aggressor trying to beat the hell out of Wilson who is trapped in his cruiser. Johnson described a tug-of-war, where Brown has "one hand on top of the cruiser and the other hand more right up under the window, the side mirror. He’s trying to pull off the officer’s grip." Wilson is trying to pull Brown in, Brown is trying to escape.



  • Michael Brown- Suicide by Cop February 21, 2015 by thrasymachus33308 The facts about Michael Brown are well-known. By “facts” and “well-known” I mean the official facts and the official knowledge. On this level, as we all know from constant repetition from authority, Michael Brown was a young teenage boy more or less minding his own business, killed by a white police officer. The officer’s claim of self-defense can’t be dismissed out of hand, but the role of racism in the incident must be taken seriously and must be investigated.... Michael Brown, we are assured, was a young man with a bright future- perhaps a little troubled, but what young man isn’t? He had “just finished high school”, we are told, although he apparently graduated in August on some kind of remedial program, and was “on his way to college” although that was certainly some remedial program at a community college.  Bruce Charlton talked recently about the temptation to suicide when you feel that life is a failure, or pointless, or the use of suicide to control the timing and circumstances of one’s death. Brown had youth, and health. But I think he saw that it was all downhill for him, going to school, which he probably hated, working crappy, humiliating jobs, which everyone hates, his mom probably hinting it would be nice if he got a job, some girl hinting she would like to have a baby which he would have to support for years, and couldn’t bear the thought of it. He decided to go out in a blaze of glory, and the rest, as they say, is history…….. The classification of the incident as suicide-by-cop has barely been mentioned in the MSM, and never taken seriously. But lost in the shouting is the low value placed on life by all the good people, but especially Michael Brown himself.

    August 19, 2014


    The Problem With “Suicide by Cop” Slate The dangerous term that stops us from asking hard questions about police shootings.By Josh VoorheesKajieme Powell, moments before being shot to death by police officers in St. Louis on Tuesday, Aug. 19, 2014.  In the immediate aftermath of the shooting, local authorities were quick to describe it as “suicide by cop.” In some respects, the video supports such a conclusion. Powell refuses to obey the officers’ commands as he moves toward them, then dares them to shoot.



    1 killed August 11, 2014  Unarmed Ezell Ford Shot Trying To Grab Police Weapon When Los Angeles police anti-gang officers conducted an "investigative stop" of 25-year-old Ezell Ford on a Los Angeles sidewalk, he "wheeled around and basically tackled the lead officer," then went after his weapon, an LAPD spokesperson told the LA Times. His mother claims he was known to have schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. She and  at least one eyewitness say he was complying with the officers and lying on the ground when he was shot in the back.  He was one of four notable cases of unarmed black men killed by police. Ford’s family has filed a civil rights lawsuit against the LAPD  claiming $75 million in damages. June 2015, a civilian oversight committee recommended administrative disapproval for one and no fault with another officer, and left criminal charges to the DA. Ford had prior convictions for possession of marijuana, illegally possessing a loaded firearm, and trespassing. Officers involved in the shooting are Asian American and Latino.

    1 man armed with knife killed, officer charged with murder July 27, 2013 Death of Sammy Yatim By Toronto Cops The death of Sammy Yatim occurred on the evening of , in TorontoOntarioCanada. Yatim, an 18-year-old Toronto man, was shot eight times and missed once by 30-year-old Toronto Police Service officer James Forcillo. He later died from the injuries.[2] The incident occurred on the westbound 505 Dundas streetcar line at Dundas Street West and Bellwoods Avenue, after Yatim brandished a three-inch knife and exposed himself. After being shot, he was Tasered.[4] He was pronounced dead at St. Michael's Hospital. Hundreds of mourners came to the Syrian Orthodox Church service.The incident was recorded and footage of it was released for public viewing. On August 19, 2013, officer James Forcillo was charged with second-degree murder. On July 30, 2014, he was additionally charged with attempted murder.

    Snopes Debunked: Hashim Hanif Ibn Abdul-Rasheed shot dead at Ohio airport wasn't a mideast terrorist in apparent hijack attempt

    Colorado I-25 Drive By Shootings  ---
    tags: pull alongside Drive-by Shooting ---, bicycle victim, Serial crimes

    1 injured 5 apparent attacks April 22, 2015 Colorado I-25 Cori Romero Shot in Neck Pull Alongside Drive By Shooting  Cori Romero was on her way home from a late night shift at work when a car pulled alongside her and shot into her car hitting her in the neck. She was rushed to the hospital, and is unable to work. Despite a rash 5 unexplained broken windows in a week,  authorities says there is no evidence of a pattern of shootings at motorists, the only confirmed shooting was the woman wounded in the neck. It was the third of a series of reported shootings or glass shatterings in the area, though police emphasized there was no proof a serial shooter. On May 18, 2015 the FBI became involved after a bicyclist was shot in the area bringing up new fears of a serial shooter.

    1 killed May 18, 2015 Colorado Man John Jacoby Shot Riding Bicycle Near I-25 Shootings. Jacoby 48, was riding his bike when he was shot and killed on Weld County Road 15 near Weld County Road 72. A passing motorist found him on the ground. He had been shot twice. Jacoby was a part-time park caretaker with the Town of Windsor. (kdvr)

    "Unrelated" case:

    0 injured shooting at car January 8, 2015  Greenwood Village I-25 driver opens window, fires in  road rage shooting Denver Post Police in Greenwood Village are searching for a suspect who fired "multiple" gunshots in an apparent case of interstate road rage on Thursday morning. One cut the other off, suspect rolled down his window, displayed a semi-automatic gun and fired, struck the passenger side of the victim's vehicle but did not cause any injuries, suspect Hispanic male with short buzzed hair, customized Honda Accord with no license plate tags: road rage, drive by shooting, hispanic suspect, Colorado, illegal driver.

    *Timeline of sources

    June 1, 2015 Task force works to find suspect who is shooting people on ... WGN‑TV12 hours ago - It's been six weeks since Cori Romero was shot in the neck near Harmony ... Last week she learned from police her shooting is connected to the Murder... He was riding his bike when he was shot and killed in Windsor, about ...
    May 30 2 Colorado shootings linked - CNN.com CNN  Police have connected the fatal shooting of a bicyclist and the wounding of a ... John Jacoby, 48, was fatally shot while riding his bicycle, police say; Cori Romero, ... About a month earlier, Cori Romero, 20, was driving when ...

    May 29 Police: Someone shooting people at random on northern ...  KDVR4 days ago - Police say the deadly shooting of a man on his bicycle near Windsor May 18 is connected to another shooting in Fort Collins. ... Cori Romero was shot in the neck on April 22 and continues to recover from that injury.

    May 29, 2015  Authorities: Windsor bicyclist's killing, I-25 shooting are linked The Denver Post4 days ago - May 29: Authorities to release new info in Windsor cyclist shooting ... Cori Romero, the woman shot in the neck while driving on Interstate 25 ...

    FBI Links Northern Colorado Shootings of John Jacoby, Cori ... Westword - The FBI has linked the northern Colorado shootings of John Jacoby, who was killed, and Cori Romero, who was seriously injured, and is offering a $10000... ...He'd been shot twice as he was riding his bicycle.

    May 18, 2015 shooting May 21, 2105 Colorado Town on Edge as Authorities Consider Serial ...
    ABC News6 days ago - PHOTO: John Jacoby, 48, was found dead near his bike Monday in ... Next Video FBI Investigating Possible Serial Shooter in Colorado.

    May 20 Race Canceled Amid Anxiety Over Colorado Roadway ...
    abcnews.go.com › USMay 20, 2015 - ... grocery store bagger who walked or rode his bike everywhere. ... or if it was connected to the April 22 shooting of Cori Romero about 5 miles ...

    May 19, 2015

    Colorado cyclist John Jacoby found dead in ditch shot twice ...Daily Mail May 19, 2015 - Gunned down: John Jacoby, 48, was found dead on the side of the road in Windsor, Colorado, at 10am on Monday morning. He was the victim ...
    'Serial sniper' on the loose in Colorado - Daily Mail www.dailymail.co.uk/.../FBI-joins-investigation-shooting-Colora... Daily MailMay 19, 2015 - Bicyclist John Jacoby, 48, was shot dead on a rural road in Windsor,Colorado, Monday, less than a month after Cori Romero, 20, took a bullet ...

    FBI joins Windsor cyclist fatal shooting investigation The ColoradoanMay 19, 2015 - Twenty-four hours after a cyclist was found shot and killed on a Weld... for the agency and a somewhat unusual move in Northern Colorado.

    May 18, 2015 

    May 18, 2015 shooting May 21, 2105 Colorado Town on Edge as Authorities Consider Serial ...
    ABC News6 days ago - PHOTO: John Jacoby, 48, was found dead near his bike Monday in ... Next Video FBI Investigating Possible Serial Shooter in Colorado.

    Woman 'Still in Shock,' Describes Getting Shot While Driving  ABC NewsMay 1, 2015 - Cori Romero didn't initially realize she'd been shot. The 20-year-old was driving along Interstate 25 near Fort Collins, Colorado, on April 22,
    April 29, 2015 shootings, May 1, 2015 update  I-25 GLASS SHATTERINGS UP TO SEVEN, UPDATE ON SHOOTING VICTIM CORI ROMERO BY MICHAEL ROBERTS  Fox31 Romero's case was one of five in which the car windows of commuters were shattered on northern Colorado roadways over the span of about a week. now shatterings is up to seven  As noted in our earlier post, the Romero incident was the third of five window shatterings reported as of 8:19 a.m. on Wednesday morning, April 29.  two more followed in quick succession. According to 7News, the latest happenings took place between 10 a.m. and 11 a.m. on the 29th, both on Interstate 25 — one near mile marker 257, the other in the vicinity of mile marker 276.

    April 29, 2015 update Cori Romero's I-25 Neck Shooting: Other NoCo Drivers Being Targeted? Westword She was rushed to the hospital and surgery was performed to repair the damage sustained from the shooting. She is now on a long road to recovery and will be unable to work for an indefinite amount of time. Romero's GoFundMe   On April 23rd, Cori was on her way home from a late night shift at work when a car pulled alongside her, shot into her car hitting her in the neck. She was rushed to the hospital and surgery was performed to repair the damage sustained from the shooting. She is now on a long road to recovery and will be unable to work for an indefinite amount of time. Due to this random senseless act, she is now facing an overwhelming financial burden following her recovery at home through no fault of her own. Since the shooting of Romero, other examples of car windows being shattered in the area have cropped up.
    Cori Romero offering a thumbs-up.


    April 28, 2015 Another incident of shattered windows on I-25 9NEWS.com‎  truck with its windows shattered has been found onInterstate 25 in Fort Collins, no proof it was shot out

    April 28, 2015 Probe Continues Into Motorist Shooting On I-25 KKTV 11 N no  leads... no evidence of a pattern of shootings at motorists. The Coloradoan reports Tuesday that the only confirmed shooting involved a woman wounded in the neck on April 21. Larimer County Sheriff Justin Smith says there isn't anything to show that four other incidents in which vehicle windows were shattered last week involved gunshots or were related. Probe Continues KKTV Police say they have no leads into the shooting last week of a motorist on Interstate 25 near Fort Collins.

    April 28, 2015 Windows shatter driving  near Fort Collins Tuesday morning Randy Lingbloom was driving near Fort Collins when his driver's side window shattered. Driver's window shattered on I-25, 5th case in week  KMGH‑TV  The latest case was reported around 10 a.m. on Interstate 25, near Larimer... The man told deputies he thought the window had been shot. 

    April 24, 2015 Mystery Colorado Highway Shooting on I-25 Points to  ABC News After four attacks centered on a northern Colorado highway within three days, authorities are concerned a serial shooter may be on the loose. Police are trying to determine whether the incidents in Larimer and Weld counties are linked, the most severe of which was Wednesday, when a woman was shot in the neck.  Colorado highway shootings may be work of serial attacker New York Daily News

     April 23 Thursday, a man driving on Weld County Road 49 at 12:10 p.m. between Weld County Road 24 and Weld County Road 26 said his front driver’s side window shattered. The man told deputies he thought the window had been shot. The driver was not hurt.

    April 22  Wednesday, Cori Romero was driving on I-25 near Fort Collins when a bullet shattered her driver-side window and hit her in the neck. She was shot as she turned from East Harmony Road onto the on-ramp to southbound I-25 around 11:15 p.m. [by a car that drove up and shot at her]

    April 22,  a man driving driving east on East Eisenhower Boulevard approaching North Cleveland Avenue in Loveland at 9:50 p.m. called police and said he had heard a "pop" and his rear window was shattered. The man was alone and not injured from this incident.

    April 21 deputies with the Larimer County Sheriff's Office were transporting three inmates in a van from the Jefferson County Detention Center to the Larimer County Jail. At 11:15 a.m. on Interstate 25 just north of Mead, the right passenger window of the transport van shattered.